Design-based approach

When a survey is analysed in practice, it is emphasized that the estimation should take into account the structure of the sampling scheme. To accomplish this, the analysis is carried out using the so-called design-based approach. An essential property of the design-based approach is that any of the complexities due to the sampling scheme can be properly accounted in the estimation. These complexities can arise, for example, when elements have unequal selection probabilities. See page 10 in Lehtonen, R & Pahkinen, E. (2004)

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